Standards developed by standard-setting organisations (SSOs) - sometimes labelled private rulemaking - are part of larger practices of governance in most societies yet are underinvestigated from a policy process perspective. Utilising and developing the multiple streams approach (MSA), this article investigates a policy process moving between government and the SSO Standards Norway (SN). The study finds standardisation by SSOs to be an ambiguous institutional arrangement. Strong institutional barriers in theory did not work as such in the case investigated. This article argues that the differentiation between responsibility for process (SN) and content (committee) makes the standardisation process vulnerable. The concept of institutional deficit is introduced to describe a potential mismatch between SSOs producing policy in a government-like institution, but where the SSOs are not capable of taking responsibility for policies in a government-like way. This article finds the adjusted MSA useful in this potentially least likely case.
Heyerdahl, A. (2023). Standardising policy in a nonstandard way: A public/private standardisation process in Norway. Journal of Public Policy, 43(4), 761–790. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0143814X23000223