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Background: Layered double hydroxide lactate nanosheets (LDH-lactate-NS) are powerful carriers for delivering macro-molecules into intact plant cells. In the past few years, some studies have been carried out on DNA/RNA transformation and plant disease resistance, but little attention has been paid to these factors during LDH-lactate-NS synthesis and delamination, nor has their relationship to the DNA adsorption capacity or transformation efficiency of plant cells been considered. Results: Since the temperature during delamination alters particle sizes and zeta potentials of LDH-lactate-NS products, we compared the LDH-lactate-NS stability, DNA adsorption rate and delivery efficiency of fluorescein isothiocyanate isomer I (FITC) of them, found that the LDH-lactate-NS obtained at 25 °C has the best characters for delivering biomolecules into plant cell. To understand the potential side effects and cytotoxicity of LDH-lactate-NS to plants, we compared the root growth rate between the Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grown in the culture medium with 1–300 μg/mL LDH-lactate-NS and equivalent raw material, Mg(lactate)2 and Al (lactate)3. Phenotypic analysis showed LDH in a range of 1–300 μg/mL can enhance the root elongation, whereas the same concentration of raw materials dramatically inhibited root elongation, suggesting the nanocrystallization has a dramatical de-toxic effect to Mg(lactate)2 and Al (lactate)3. Since enhancing of root elongation by LDH is an unexpected phenomenon, we further designed experiments to investigate influence of LDH to Arabidopsis seedlings. We further used the gravitropic bending test, qRT-PCR analysis of auxin transport proteins, non-invasive micro-test technology and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to investigate the auxin transport and distribution in Arabidopsis root. Results indicated that LDH-lactate-NS affect root growth by increasing the polar auxin transport. Conclusions: Optimal synthesized LDH-lactate-NS can delivery biomolecules into intact plant cells with high efficiency and low cytotoxity. The working solution of LDH-lactate-NS can promote root elongation via increase the polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis roots.
Wu, H., Zhang, H., Li, X., Zhang, Y., Wang, J., Wang, Q., & Wan, Y. (2022). Optimized synthesis of layered double hydroxide lactate nanosheets and their biological effects on Arabidopsis seedlings. Plant Methods, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13007-022-00850-w