The dramatic development of new electronic devices within the last 25 years has had a substantial influence on the control and automation of industrial bioprocesses. Within this short period of time the method of controlling industrial bioprocesses has changed completely. In this paper, the authors will use a practical approach focusing on the industrial applications of automation systems. From the early attempts to use computers for the automation of biotechnological processes up to the modern process automation systems some milestones are highlighted. Special attention is given to the influence of Standards and Guidelines on the development of automation systems.
Beyeler, W., DaPra, E., & Schneider, K. (2000). Automation of industrial bioprocesses. Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology, 70, 139–164. https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-44965-5_7