Head-to-head trial of pegunigalsidase alfa versus agalsidase beta in patients with Fabry disease and deteriorating renal function: results from the 2-year randomised phase III BALANCE study

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Abstract

Background Pegunigalsidase alfa is a PEGylated α-galactosidase A enzyme replacement therapy. BALANCE (NCT02795676) assessed non-inferiority of pegunigalsidase alfa versus agalsidase beta in adults with Fabry disease with an annualised estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) slope more negative than -2 mL/min/1.73 m 2 /year who had received agalsidase beta for ≥1 year. Methods Patients were randomly assigned 2:1 to receive 1 mg/kg pegunigalsidase alfa or agalsidase beta every 2 weeks for 2 years. The primary efficacy analysis assessed non-inferiority based on median annualised eGFR slope differences between treatment arms. Results Seventy-seven patients received either pegunigalsidase alfa (n=52) or agalsidase beta (n=25). At baseline, mean (range) age was 44 (18-60) years, 47 (61%) patients were male, median eGFR was 74.5 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and median (range) eGFR slope was -7.3 (-30.5, 6.3) mL/min/1.73 m 2 /year. At 2 years, the difference between median eGFR slopes was -0.36 mL/min/1.73 m 2 /year, meeting the prespecified non-inferiority margin. Minimal changes were observed in lyso-Gb3 concentrations in both treatment arms at 2 years. Proportions of patients experiencing treatment-related adverse events and mild or moderate infusion-related reactions were similar in both groups, yet exposure-adjusted rates were 3.6-fold and 7.8-fold higher, respectively, with agalsidase beta than pegunigalsidase alfa. At the end of the study, neutralising antibodies were detected in 7 out of 47 (15%) pegunigalsidase alfa-treated patients and 6 out of 23 (26%) agalsidase beta-treated patients. There were no deaths. Conclusions Based on rate of eGFR decline over 2 years, pegunigalsidase alfa was non-inferior to agalsidase beta. Pegunigalsidase alfa had lower rates of treatment-emergent adverse events and mild or moderate infusion-related reactions. Trial registration number NCT02795676.

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APA

Wallace, E. L., Goker-Alpan, O., Wilcox, W. R., Holida, M., Bernat, J., Longo, N., … Warnock, D. G. (2024). Head-to-head trial of pegunigalsidase alfa versus agalsidase beta in patients with Fabry disease and deteriorating renal function: results from the 2-year randomised phase III BALANCE study. Journal of Medical Genetics, 61(6), 520–530. https://doi.org/10.1136/jmg-2023-109445

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