Syn-kinematic strata influence the structural evolution of emergent fold-thrust belts

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Whether thrusts are ramp-dominated and form imbricate fans or run out onto the syn-orogenic surface, forming thrust-allochthons, is governed by the activity of secondary upper detachments along the synorogenic surface, activations of which are inhibited by synkinematic sedimentation at the thrust front. In the northern Apennines, where thrust systems are ramp-dominated and form an emergent imbricate fan, syn-kinematic sedimentation was abundant and accumulated ahead and above each thrust. In the southern Apennines, the far-travelled Lagronegro allochthon achieved its high displacements (>65 km) while the foredeep basin received little sediment. The imbricate fan at the front of the main Himalayan arc developed within a foredeep that experienced high rates of syn-kinematic sedimentation. In contrast, further west, the Salt Range Thrust emerged into a distal, weakly developed foredeep with significantly reduced rates of sediment accumulation. Displacements were strongly localized onto this thrust (c. 25 km displacement) which activated an upper detachment along the syn-orogenic surface. It is an arrested thrust-allochthon. Lateral variations into the adjacent, ramp-dominated but still salt-detached, Jhelum fold-belt are marked by increases in syn-kinematic sedimentation. As sedimentation styles can vary in space and time, individual thrusts and thrust systems can evolve from being allochthon prone to imbricate dominated.




Butler, R. W. H. (2020). Syn-kinematic strata influence the structural evolution of emergent fold-thrust belts. In Geological Society Special Publication (Vol. 490, pp. 57–78). Geological Society of London.

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