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No systemic biomarker of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSCR) has been identified. Lipocalin 2 (LCN2 or NGAL), alone or complexed with MMP-9 (NGAL/MMP-9), is increased in several retinal disorders. Serum levels of LCN2 and NGAL/MMP-9 were measured in CSCR patients (n = 147) with chronic (n = 76) or acute/recurrent disease (n = 71) and in age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 130). Samples with CRP > 5 mg/L, creatinine > 100 µmol/L, and/or urea > 7.5 mmol/L were excluded. Serum LCN2 was lower in CSCR patients than controls (81.4 ± 48.7 vs 107.3 ± 44.5 ng/ml, p < 0.0001), and lower in acute/recurrent CSCR than controls (p < 0.001) and chronic CSCR (p = 0.006). Serum NGAL/MMP-9 was lower in CSCR patients than controls (47.2 ± 40.7 vs 74.1 ± 42.6, p < 0.0001), and lower in acute/recurrent CSCR than controls (p < 0.001) and chronic CSCR (p = 0.002). A ROC curve showed that for LCN2 serum levels, the 80-ng/ml cutoff value allows to discriminate acute/recurrent CSCR from controls with 80.3% sensitivity and 75.8% specificity, and for NGAL/MMP-9 serum levels, a 38-ng/ml cutoff value allows to discriminate acute/recurrent CSCR from controls with 69.6% sensitivity and 80.3% specificity. In both acute and chronic CSCR, low serum LCN2 and NGAL/MMP-9, provide a biological link between the two CSCR forms, and potential susceptibility to oxidative stress and innate immune dysregulation in CSCR.
Matet, A., Jaworski, T., Bousquet, E., Canonica, J., Gobeaux, C., Daruich, A., … Behar-Cohen, F. (2020). Lipocalin 2 as a potential systemic biomarker for central serous chorioretinopathy. Scientific Reports, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77202-y