The development of frost hardiness and frost damage of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) was described by a dynamic model where the input variables were temperature, photoperiod and the phase of annual development. The model was linked to a forest growth model FINNFOR. Simulations were carried out using generated weather data including climatic warming. During most of the simulated years frost damage increased slightly as a result of climatic warming. Climatic warming also increased the frequency of heavy frost damage. However, the warming may prevent heavy damage in extremely cold winters.
Leinonen, I., & Kellomäki, S. (1997). Effects of Climatic Warming on Frost Damage of Scots Pine (pp. 165–171). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-8949-9_22