A new species of Corydoras is described from the rio São Francisco basin in northeastern Brazil, Minas Gerais and Bahia States. The new species is distinguished from most of its congeners by the anterior portion of the infraorbital 1 very large, conspicuously expanded towards the anteroventral margin of the snout and almost entirely covering its lateral margin. Other characters that distinguish the new species are the infraorbital 2 slender on its dorsal tip, contacting only sphenotic and not compound pterotic; and the presence of two laterosensory canals on trunk. A phylogenetic analysis including the new species found it sister-group of C. flaveolus, and both species sister-group of C. paleatus. An identification key to the species of the rio São Francisco basin is also provided. © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Ictiologia.
Tencatt, L. F. C., Vera-Alcaraz, H. S., Britto, M. R., & Pavanelli, C. S. (2013). A new Corydoras Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae) from the rio São Francisco basin, Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyology, 11(2), 257–264. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1679-62252013000200003