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Sestrins (Sesns), highly conserved stress-inducible metabolic proteins, are known to protect organisms against various noxious stimuli including DNA damage, oxidative stress, starvation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and hypoxia. Sesns regulate metabolism mainly through activation of the key energy sensor AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Sesns also play pivotal roles in autophagy activation and apoptosis inhibition in normal cells, while conversely promoting apoptosis in cancer cells. The functions of Sesns in diseases such as metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer have been broadly investigated in the past decades. However, there is a limited number of reviews that have summarized the functions of Sesns in the pathophysiological processes of human diseases, especially musculoskeletal system diseases. One aim of this review is to discuss the biological functions of Sesns in the pathophysiological process and phenotype of diseases. More significantly, we include some new evidence about the musculoskeletal system. Another purpose is to explore whether Sesns could be potential biomarkers or targets in the future diagnostic and therapeutic process.
Chen, Y., Huang, T., Yu, Z., Yu, Q., Wang, Y., Hu, J., … Yang, G. (2022, December 1). The functions and roles of sestrins in regulating human diseases. Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters. BioMed Central Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1186/s11658-021-00302-8