Global trends in incidence, death, burden and risk factors of early-onset cancer from 1990 to 2019

  • Zhao J
  • Xu L
  • Sun J
  • et al.
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Objective This study aimed to explore the global burden of early-onset cancer based on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019 study for 29 cancers worldwid. Methods and analysis Incidence, deaths, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and risk factors for 29 early-onset cancer groups were obtained from GBD. Results Global incidence of early-onset cancer increased by 79.1% and the number of early-onset cancer deaths increased by 27.7% between 1990 and 2019. Early-onset breast, tracheal, bronchus and lung, stomach and colorectal cancers showed the highest mortality and DALYs in 2019. Globally, the incidence rates of early-onset nasopharyngeal and prostate cancer showed the fastest increasing trend, whereas early-onset liver cancer showed the sharpest decrease. Early-onset colorectal cancers had high DALYs within the top five ranking for both men and women. High-middle and middle Sociodemographic Index (SDI) regions had the highest burden of early-onset cancer. The morbidity of early-onset cancer increased with the SDI, and the mortality rate decreased considerably when SDI increased from 0.7 to 1. The projections indicated that the global number of incidence and deaths of early-onset cancer would increase by 31% and 21% in 2030, respectively. Dietary risk factors (diet high in red meat, low in fruits, high in sodium and low in milk, etc), alcohol consumption and tobacco use are the main risk factors underlying early-onset cancers. Conclusion Early-onset cancer morbidity continues to increase worldwide with notable variances in mortality and DALYs between areas, countries, sex and cancer types. Encouraging a healthy lifestyle could reduce early-onset cancer disease burden. Data are available in a public, open access repository. To access the citations for the data utilized in this study, please visit the data input sources tool on the Global Health Data Exchange website (). Complete files containing all GBD 2019 estimates can be obtained from the Global Health Data Exchange website () or downloaded using the Global Health Data Exchange results tool (). Reference: GBD 2019 Cancer Risk Factors Collaborators. The global burden of cancer attributable to risk factors, 2010-19: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Lancet. 2022;400(10352):563-591. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(22)01438-6.




Zhao, J., Xu, L., Sun, J., Song, M., Wang, L., Yuan, S., … Li, X. (2023). Global trends in incidence, death, burden and risk factors of early-onset cancer from 1990 to 2019. BMJ Oncology, 2(1), e000049.

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