Gandaberunda: Aesthetic representation of the mythical bird

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Indian Art is predominantly decorative in character and birds occupy an important position in plastic and pictorial representation. Birds such as the Garuda, Peacock and others are connected with important mythological stories and in the stories of Jataka, most other birds are carved, painted as an integral part of the design. Of the mythical birds, Garuda, the vehicle of Vishnu, is well-represented in medieval records. In south, another kind of mythical bird is noticed in the inscription known as gaṅḋabheruṅḋa. In Sanskrit the word bheruṅḋa means terrific, frightful, terrible, a species of bird while gaṅḋa is understood to imply a warrior or hero. The term gaṅḋabheruṅḋa was adopted as a title by the Chalukyas, Kadambas and the Vijayanagara rulers. There are numismatic representations, literary references, sculptural and artistic portrays of this unique symbol in Vijayanagara art. The ceiling of the Virabhadra shrine at Keladi, and the bherundeshwara temple at Balligavi have the most exquisite representations of the gaṅḋabheruṅdṅa. The gaṅḋabheruṅḋa is also the logo of Karnataka State Government and was the royal insignia of the Wadiyars. The paper attempts to analyse the significance of the gaṅḋabheruṅḋa in Karnataka and bring forth the artistic and aesthetic representation of the motif.




Gowda, G. (2019). Gandaberunda: Aesthetic representation of the mythical bird. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, 8(7C2), 408–412.

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