High prevalence of advanced colorectal neoplasia in the Thai population: A prospective screening colonoscopy of 1,404 cases

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Abstract

Background: Increasing morbidity and mortality from colorectal cancer is evident in recent years in the developing Asian nations. Particularly in Thailand and most neighbouring low-income countries, screening colonoscopy is not yet recommended nor implemented at the national policy level. Methods: Screening colonoscopy was offered to 1,500 healthy volunteers aged 50-65 years old who were registered into the program between July 2009 and June 2010. Biopsy and surgery was performed depending on the identified lesions. Fecal immunochemical tests (FIT) were additionally performed for comparison with colonoscopy. Results: There were 1,404 participants who underwent colonoscopy. The mean age of the cohort was 56.9±4.2 years and 69.4 % were females. About 30 % (411 cases) of all colonoscopies had abnormal colonoscopic findings, and of these, 256 cases had adenomatous polyps. High risk adenomas (villous or tubulovillous or high grade dysplasia or size>1 cm or>3 adenomatous polyps) were found in 98 cases (7 %), low risk adenoma in 158 cases (11.3 %), and hyperplastic polyps in 119 cases (8.5 %). Eighteen cases (1.3 %) had colorectal cancer and 90 % of them (16 cases) were non-metastatic including five stage 0 cases, seven stage I cases, and four stage IIA cases. Only two cases had metastasis: one to regional lymph nodes (stage IIIB) and another to other organs (stage IVA). The most common cancer site was the distal intestine including rectum (7 cases, 38.9 %) and sigmoid colon (7 cases, 38.9 %). Ten colorectal cancer cases had positive FIT whereas 8 colorectal cancer cases were FIT-negative. The sensitivity and specificity of FIT was 55.6 % and 96.2 %, respectively, while the positive predictive value was 16.4 % and negative predictive value was 99.4 %. The overall survival of colorectal cancer cases at 5-year was 83.3 %. Conclusion: High prevalence of colorectal cancer and high-risk adenoma was found in the Thai population aged 50-65 years old by screening colonoscopy. FIT was not sensitive enough to detect colorectal cancer in this asymptomatic cohort. Integration of screening colonoscopy into the national cancer screening program should be implemented to detect early cases of advanced colorectal neoplasia and improve survival of colorectal cancer patients in Thailand.

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Siripongpreeda, B., Mahidol, C., Dusitanond, N., Sriprayoon, T., Muyphuag, B., Sricharunrat, T., … Auewarakul, C. U. (2016). High prevalence of advanced colorectal neoplasia in the Thai population: A prospective screening colonoscopy of 1,404 cases. BMC Gastroenterology, 16(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12876-016-0526-0

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