Modifiable Factors and Incident Gout Across Ethnicity Within a Large Multiethnic Cohort of Older Adults

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Abstract

Objective. Gout disproportionately affects older Pacific Islander and Black populations relative to White populations. However, the ethnic-specific determinants remain understudied within these groups, as well as within other ethnicities. We examined gout incidence and associations with behavioral factors, including diet, alcohol, and smoking, within a large multiethnic population of older adults from the Multiethnic Cohort Study, which linked prospective cohort data to Medicare gout claims between 1999–2016. Methods. Using samples of Black (n = 12,370), Native Hawaiian (n = 6459), Japanese (n = 29,830), Latino (n = 17,538), and White (n = 26,067) participants, we conducted multiple Cox regressions, producing hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Results. Relative to White individuals, Native Hawaiians had the highest risk of gout (HR 2.21, 95% CI 2.06–2.38), followed successively by Black and Japanese participants, whereas Latino individuals had a lower risk of gout (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.73–0.83). Alcohol use was associated with an increased risk, with significantly greater effects observed among Japanese participants drinking ≥ 3 drinks per day (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.27–1.66), or > 5 beers per week (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.17–1.43), compared to White individuals (Pinteraction < 0.001). Former smokers with ≥ 20 pack-years had an increased risk (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.06–1.22). Higher dietary quality was associated with a decreased gout risk, with the largest effect observed among White participants (HRQ5vsQ1 0.84, 95% CI 0.79–0.90), whereas vitamin C was weakly associated with a decreased risk of gout only among Japanese individuals (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.85–0.98). Conclusion. Overall, notable ethnic differences were observed in both gout risk and associations with modifiable behavioral factors. Our findings offer crucial insights that may improve precision in preventing and managing gout.

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Thompson, M. D., Wu, Y. Y., Cooney, R. V., Wilkens, L. R., Haiman, C. A., & Pirkle, C. M. (2022). Modifiable Factors and Incident Gout Across Ethnicity Within a Large Multiethnic Cohort of Older Adults. Journal of Rheumatology, 49(5), 504–512. https://doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.210394

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