This paper presents the design and analysis of Proportional-Integral-Double Derivative (PIDD) controller for Automatic Generation Control (AGC) of multi-area power systems with diverse energy sources using Teaching Learning Based Optimization (TLBO) algorithm. At first, a two-area reheat thermal power system with appropriate Generation Rate Constraint (GRC) is considered. The design problem is formulated as an optimization problem and TLBO is employed to optimize the parameters of the PIDD controller. The superiority of the proposed TLBO based PIDD controller has been demonstrated by comparing the results with recently published optimization technique such as hybrid Firefly Algorithm and Pattern Search (hFA-PS), Firefly Algorithm (FA), Bacteria Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA), Genetic Algorithm (GA) and conventional Ziegler Nichols (ZN) for the same interconnected power system. Also, the proposed approach has been extended to two-area power system with diverse sources of generation like thermal, hydro, wind and diesel units. The system model includes boiler dynamics, GRC and Governor Dead Band (GDB) non-linearity. It is observed from simulation results that the performance of the proposed approach provides better dynamic responses by comparing the results with recently published in the literature. Further, the study is extended to a three unequal-area thermal power system with different controllers in each area and the results are compared with published FA optimized PID controller for the same system under study. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed by varying the system parameters and operating load conditions in the range of ±25% from their nominal values to test the robustness.
Sahu, R. K., Gorripotu, T. S., & Panda, S. (2016). Automatic generation control of multi-area power systems with diverse energy sources using Teaching Learning Based Optimization algorithm. Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal, 19(1), 113–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jestch.2015.07.011