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Little is known about the host factor in the response to PRRSV vaccination. For this purpose, piglets were immunized with a commercial PRRSV-live vaccine and classified as high responders (HR) or low responders (LR) as regards to the frequencies of virus-specific IFN-γ-secreting cells. Six weeks post vaccination, PBMCs isolated from three individuals with the most extreme responses in each HR and LR groups and 3 unvaccinated controls, were either stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin, challenged with the vaccine or mock treated for 24 h, prior conducting transcriptional studies, gene ontology and pathway analyses. The LR group had very low neutralizing antibody levels and showed a higher number of down-regulated transcripts compared with the HR group (FDR < 0.2, P < 0.001). Down-regulated genes encoded chemoattractants, proinflammatory cytokines and the interferon-inducible GBP family, and showed enrichment in wounding (FDR < 3.6E-13), inflammation (FDR < 8E-12), defence (FDR < 8.7E-09) and immunity (FDR < 7.6E-08), suggesting immune response impairment. In the HR group, down-regulated genes were involved in protein transport (FDR < 4.77E-03), locomotory behavior (FDR < 5.47E-3), regulation of protein localization (FDR < 1.02E-02), and regulation of TNF superfamily member 15 and miR181. In contrast, the HR group presented up-regulated transcripts associated with wounding (FDR < 4.95). Moreover, IFN-γ was predicted to be an inhibited upstream regulator since IFN-γ pathways were associated with higher number of down-regulated genes in the LR (n = 40) than the HR (n = 10). Divergent responses to PRRSV-vaccination may be the result of the genetic background of the host.
Ait-Ali, T., Díaz, I., Soldevila, F., Cano, E., Li, Y., Wilson, A. D., … Darwich, L. (2016). Distinct functional enrichment of transcriptional signatures in pigs with high and low IFN-gamma responses after vaccination with a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Veterinary Research, 47(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13567-016-0392-3