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Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a hypercoagulable state and increased neutrophil extracellular traps formation (NETosis). We investigated predictors of NETosis and cell death markers in circulating blood and their association with a prothrombotic state in T2DM. Methods: In a cross-sectional study involving 113 T2DM patients aged 63.7 ± 8.2 years, we investigated citrullinated histone H3 (H3Cit), cell-free deoxyribonucleic acid (cfDNA), myeloperoxidase, neutrophil elastase, and inflammation markers, along with thrombin generation (TG), plasma clot lysis time (CLT), clot permeability (K s ) and fibrinolysis inhibitors. Results: On multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and gender, predictors of high H3Cit (≥ 7.36 ng/mL, upper quartile) were: glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 7.0% and interleukin-6. Interleukin-6 was also found to be a predictor of high cfDNA (≥ 2.84 μg/mL, upper quartile) along with glucose. Citrullinated histone H3 and cfDNA correlated positively with CLT and inversely with K s , while TG associated solely with cfDNA. These associations were not seen with myeloperoxidase and neutrophil elastase. Patients with previous myocardial infarction (n = 21, 18.6%) had higher H3Cit (+108%, p < 0.001) and cfDNA (+45%, p = 0.022). On multivariable analysis adjusted for potential confounders, H3Cit and cfDNA, along with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and concomitant cardiovascular disease, were predictors of CLT. Citrullinated histone H3 alone was a predictor of K s and only cfDNA was a predictor of peak thrombin generated. Conclusions: In T2DM, NETosis detectable in circulating blood is associated with inflammatory state and a prothrombotic state, especially hypofibrinolysis.
Bryk, A. H., Prior, S. M., Plens, K., Konieczynska, M., Hohendorff, J., Malecki, M. T., … Undas, A. (2019). Predictors of neutrophil extracellular traps markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Associations with a prothrombotic state and hypofibrinolysis. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12933-019-0850-0