Wild bird migration and illegal trade of infected poultry, eggs, and poultry products have been associated with the spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV). During 1992–1996, H7N1 and H7N8 low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV)were identified from captive wild birds; such as Pekin robin (Leiothrix lutea), magpie robin (Copsychus saularis), flycatcher sp. (genus Empidonax), a species of softbill and parakeet, sun conure (Aratinga solstitialis), painted conure (Pyrrhura picta), fairy bluebird (Irena puella), and common iora (Aegithina tiphia), kept in aviaries or quarantine stations in England, The Netherlands, Singapore and the United States (U.S.). In this study, we sequenced these H7 viruses isolated from quarantine facilities and aviaries using next-generation sequencing and conducted a comparative phylogenetic analysis of complete genome sequences to elucidate spread patterns. The complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis suggested that H7 viruses originated from a common source, even though they were obtained from birds in distant geographical regions. All H7N1 and H7N8 viruses were LPAIV, except a H7N1 highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV), A/Pekin robin/California/30412/1994(H7N1)virus. Our results support the continued need for regulation of the captive wild bird trade to reduce the risk of introduction and dissemination of both LPAIV and HPAIV throughout the world.
Lee, D. H., Killian, M. L., Torchetti, M. K., Brown, I., Lewis, N., Berhane, Y., & Swayne, D. E. (2019). Intercontinental spread of Asian-origin H7 avian influenza viruses by captive bird trade in 1990’s. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 73, 146–150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2019.04.028