This artice is free to access.
The umbilical–portal venous system (UPVS) plays an important role in embryonic development, as well as a significant blood circulation system to ensure the normal blood supply of fetal heart and brain and other vital organs. Congenital anomalies of UPVS contain many subtypes with a broad spectrum of manifestations and prognoses. Furthermore, because of fetal small lumen of UPVS, the sonographic evaluation remains difficult in utero. Appreciation of normal embryology and anatomy of UPVS is essential to an understanding of sonographic characteristics of anomalies of UPVS and fetal sequential changes. Through reviewing previous references and our experience with congenital abnormalities of UPVS, a new comprehensive classification is proposed. The new classification identifies three types of congenital abnormalities of UPVS based on morphological abnormalities and shunts. The embryology and etiology, sonographic, clinical and prognostic characteristics of each subtype of the new classification are described in detail. Knowledge of congenital abnormalities of UPVS can give sonographers a clue and aid prenatal sonographic diagnosis. The purpose of this article is to help the sonographers to understand the new classification of congenital abnormalities of UPVS, master the sonographic characteristics of each subtype and prenatal ultrasonographic screening strategy, and guide subsequent appropriate counseling and management.
Qin, Y., Wen, H., Liang, M., Luo, D., Zeng, Q., Liao, Y., … Li, S. (2021, December 1). A new classification of congenital abnormalities of UPVS: sonographic appearances, screening strategy and clinical significance. Insights into Imaging. Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13244-021-01068-5