Soluble guanylyl cyclase (GC-1) is the primary receptor of nitric oxide (NO) in smooth muscle cells and maintains vascular function by inducing vasorelaxation in nearby blood vessels. GC-1 converts guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GTP) into cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP), which acts as a second messenger to improve blood flow. While much work has been done to characterize this pathway, we lack a mechanistic understanding of how NO binding to the heme domain leads to a large increase in activity at the C-terminal catalytic domain. Recent structural evidence and activity measurements from multiple groups have revealed a low-activity cyclase domain that requires additional GC-1 domains to promote a catalytically-competent conformation. How the catalytic domain structurally transitions into the active conformation requires further characterization. This review focuses on structure/function studies of the GC-1 catalytic domain and recent advances various groups have made in understanding how catalytic activity is regulated including small molecules interactions, Cys-S-NO modifications and potential interactions with the NO-sensor domain and other proteins.
Childers, K. C., & Garcin, E. D. (2018, July 1). Structure/function of the soluble guanylyl cyclase catalytic domain. Nitric Oxide - Biology and Chemistry. Academic Press Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.niox.2018.04.008