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Background: Severe systemic reactions resembling septic shock have been described following trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) administration. Nearly all cases described in the literature occurred in HIV-infected patients. Case presentation: We present a 42-year-old woman with a history of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) twice with fever and circulatory shock after taking a dose of TMP-SMX 800-160 mg. She had no respiratory distress, urticarial rash or eosinophilia on presentation. Infectious workup during both admissions was negative and treatment with antibiotics, steroids and vasopressors was de-escalated with clinical improvement. She was found to be HIV negative, however, labs revealed a low CD4+ count. Conclusions: TMP-SMX can rarely result in a severe, non-anaphylactic circulatory shock; if initially unrecognized, patients may undergo repeat drug exposure with an associated high morbidity risk. While more commonly reported in HIV individuals, this case demonstrates that TMP-SMX related circulatory shock can occur in a HIV negative patient.
Liu, P., Ranches, G. P., & Gold, J. A. (2018). Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole induced circulatory shock in a human immunodeficiency virus uninfected patient: A case report and review. BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology, 19(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40360-018-0269-3