Dynorphin 1-17, (DYN 1-17) opioid peptide produces antinociception following binding to the kappa-opioid peptide (KOP) receptor. Upon synthesis and release in inflamed tissues by immune cells, DYN 1-17 undergoes rapid biotransformation and yields a unique set of opioid and non-opioid fragments. Some of these major fragments possess a role in immunomodulation, suggesting that opioid-targeted therapeutics may be effective in diminishing the severity of inflammatory disorders. This study aimed to examine the immunomodulatory effects of DYN 1-17 and major N-terminal fragments found in the inflammatory environment on nuclear factor-kappaB/p65 (NF-κB/p65) nuclear translocation and the release of interleukin- 1beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- stimulated, differentiated THP-1 cells. The results demonstrate that NF-κB/p65 nuclear translocation was significantly attenuated following treatment with DYN 1-17 and a specific range of fragments, with the greatest reduction observed with DYN 1-7 at a low concentration (10 nM). Antagonism with a selective KOP receptor antagonist, ML-190, significantly reversed the inhibitory effects of DYN 1-17, DYN 1-6, DYN 1-7 and DYN 1-9, but not other DYN 1-17 N-terminal fragments (DYN 1-10 and 1-11) on NF-κB/p65 nuclear translocation. DYN 1-17 and selected fragments demonstrated differential modulation on the release of IL-1β and TNF-α with significant inhibition observed with DYN 1-7 at low concentrations (1 nM and 10 pM). These effects were blocked by ML-190, suggesting a KOP receptormediated pathway. The results demonstrate that DYN 1-17 and certain N-terminal fragments, produced in an inflamed environment, play an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting NF-κB/p65 translocation and the subsequent cytokine release through KOP receptordependent and independent pathways.
Rahiman, S. S. F., Morgan, M., Gray, P., Shaw, P. N., & Cabot, P. J. (2016). Dynorphin 1-17 and its n-terminal biotransformation fragments modulate lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nuclear factor-kappa b nuclear translocation, interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factoralpha in differentiated THP-1 cells. PLoS ONE, 11(4). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153005