Numerous microfabrication approaches have been developed to recapitulate morphologically and functionally organized tissue microarchitectures in vitro; however, the technical and operational limitations remain to be overcome. 3D printing technology facilitates the building of a construct containing biomaterials and cells in desired organizations and shapes that have physiologically relevant geometry, complexity, and micro-environmental cues. The selection of biomaterials for 3D printing is considered one of the most critical factors to achieve tissue function. It has been reported that some printable biomaterials, having extracellular matrix-like intrinsic microenvironment factors, were capable of regulating stem cell fate and phenotype. In particular, this technology can control the spatial positions of cells, and provide topological, chemical, and complex cues, allowing neovascularization and maturation in the engineered cardiovascular tissues. This review will delineate the state-of-the-art 3D bioprinting techniques in the field of cardiovascular tissue engineering and their applications in translational medicine. In addition, this review will describe 3D printing-based pre-vascularization technologies correlated with implementing blood perfusion throughout the engineered tissue equivalent. The described engineering method may offer a unique approach that results in the physiological mimicry of human cardiovascular tissues to aid in drug development and therapeutic approaches.
Jang, J. (2017, September 1). 3D bioprinting and in vitro cardiovascular tissue modeling. Bioengineering. MDPI AG. https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering4030071