Within-person association of volitional factors and physical activity: Insights from an ecological momentary assessment study

1Citations
Citations of this article
12Readers
Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
Get full text

Abstract

Objective: Current health behavior models of physical activity (PA) suggest that not all PA intentions are translated into actual PA behavior, resulting in a significant intention-behavior gap (IBG) of almost 50%. These models further suggest that higher self-efficacy and specific planning can aid in decreasing this gap. However, as most evidence stems from between-person (trait level), questionnaire-based research, it is unclear how large short-term IBGs are, how self-efficacy and planning covary within-persons across time and whether they similarly predict smaller IBGs. It is likely that day-to-day changes in circumstances and barriers affect these variables thus the applicability of theoretical models is uncertain. Here, within-person prospective analyses of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data can provide insights. Methods: 35 healthy participants (aged 23–67) completed four EMA-based questionnaires every day for three weeks. Each prompt assessed PA (retrospectively, “since the last EMA prompt”); PA intentions, planning specificity, self-efficacy, and intrinsic motivation (prospectively, “until the next EMA prompt”) and momentary affect. Generalized logistic mixed-effect modeling was used to test predictors of PA. Results: Across the 2341 answered EMA prompts, PA intentions were not enacted in 25% of the episodes (IBG). In episodes with given intentions, PA likelihood increased with higher levels of self-efficacy, planning specificity, and intrinsic motivation. The latter two also positively predicted PA duration and intensity. Conclusions: Short-term intention behavior gaps seem to be smaller than what is known from more long-term studies, most likely as individuals can anticipate the actual circumstances of PA. Further, current health behavior models show validity in explaining within-person dynamics in IBGs across time. Knowing the relevance of planning specificity, self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation for day-to-day variations in PA enactment can inform respective real-time mHealth interventions for facilitating PA.

Cite

CITATION STYLE

APA

Haag, D., Carrozzo, E., Pannicke, B., Niebauer, J., & Blechert, J. (2023). Within-person association of volitional factors and physical activity: Insights from an ecological momentary assessment study. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2023.102445

Register to see more suggestions

Mendeley helps you to discover research relevant for your work.

Already have an account?

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free