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Background: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis associated uveitis (JIA-U) is the most common extra-articular manifestation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and carries considerable risk to vision. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesise evidence of environmental risk factors for JIA-U and identify risk factors which may be modifiable or used to stratify JIA patients. Methods: This systematic review was carried out in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Four online databases - Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, MEDLINE and Embase - were searched from database inception to 12th August 2020. Identified studies were screened by two independent reviewers against pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data was extracted from all primary studies meeting inclusion criteria and independently checked. Results: We identified three studies from 895 unique records which met the inclusion criteria, each examining a different environmental risk factor. This systematic review includes 973, predominantly female, participants with JIA across these three studies. The use of allergy medication or documentation of “allergy”/“allergic” in the medical records was associated with an increased risk of JIA-U in all models presented. Vitamin D sufficiency was associated with reduced risk of JIA-U. There was insufficient evidence to support an association between seasonality and JIA-U. Conclusions: This review identifies a potential role for allergy and vitamin D in JIA-U. It also illustrates the paucity of data regarding environmental risk factors for JIA-U and highlights the need for further research to both identify additional risk factors and replicate existing findings.
Clarke, S. L. N., Mageean, K. S., Carlton, H., Simonini, G., Sharp, G. C., Relton, C. L., & Ramanan, A. V. (2021). “Environmental risk factors associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis associated uveitis: a systematic review of the literature.” Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12348-021-00247-1