Foetal onset of EIF2B related disorder in two siblings: Cerebellar hypoplasia with absent Bergmann glia and severe hypomyelination

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Abstract

Bi-allelic pathogenic variants in genes of the EIF2B family are responsible for Childhood Ataxia with Central nervous system Hypomyelination/Vanishing White Matter disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the central white matter. Only seven molecularly proven cases with antenatal onset have been reported so far. We report for the first time the neuropathological findings obtained from two foetuses harbouring deleterious variants in the EIF2B5 gene who presented in utero growth retardation and microcephaly with simplified gyral pattern that led to a medical termination of the pregnancy at 27 and 32 weeks of gestation. Neuropathological examination confirmed microcephaly with delayed gyration, periventricular pseudo-cysts and severe cerebellar hypoplasia. Histologically, the cerebellar cortex was immature, the dentate nuclei were fragmented and myelin stains revealed almost no myelination of the infratentorial structures. Bergmann glia was virtually absent associated to a drastic decreased number of mature astrocytes in the cerebellar white matter, multiple nestin-positive immature astrocytes as well as increased numbers of PDGRFα-positive oligodendrocyte precursors. Whole exome sequencing performed in the two foetuses and their parents allowed the identification of two EIF2B5 compound heterozygous variants in the two foetuses: c.468C > G p.Ile156Met and c.1165G > A p.Val389Met, the parents being heterozygous carriers. These variants are absent in the genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD r2.0.2). Contrary to the variant Ile156Met already described in a patient with CACH syndrome, the variant p.Val389Met is novel and predicted to be deleterious using several softwares. Neuropathological findings further expand the phenotypic spectrum of the disease that very likely occurs during early gestation and may manifest from the second half of pregnancy by a severe impairment of cerebral and cerebellar development.

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Trimouille, A., Marguet, F., Sauvestre, F., Lasseaux, E., Pelluard, F., Martin-Négrier, M. L., … Laquerrière, A. (2020). Foetal onset of EIF2B related disorder in two siblings: Cerebellar hypoplasia with absent Bergmann glia and severe hypomyelination. Acta Neuropathologica Communications, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40478-020-00929-2

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