Progressive amnestic cognitive impairment in a middle-aged patient with developmental language disorder: A case report

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Abstract

Background: Developmental disorder and dementia in older adults have been considered unrelated clinical entities because their timing of diagnosis differs greatly; however, recent studies have suggested an association between them. This case describes a middle-aged patient with language disorder exhibiting progressive amnestic cognitive impairment. Case Presentation: A 44-year-old Japanese man with long-term language dysfunction presented for his first-ever medical evaluation at age 36 years. Although his conversational ability had been impaired since childhood, he was able to graduate from secondary school and gain unskilled employment. At age 36 years, however, his workplace environment became more stressful, which led to behavioral problems that necessitated medical consultation. He consulted two psychiatrists in vain. At age 44 years, the third attending psychiatrist examined him in detail. The major component of his language disorder was amnestic cognitive impairment in the language domain as shown by logical memory subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. Magnetic resonance imaging showed normal findings for his age and no small vessel disease. Global cerebral hypoperfusion versus cerebellar blood flow was shown on (123I) iodoamphetamine single-photon emission computed tomography, and amyloid-β deposition was negative on positron emission tomography with 11C-Pittsburgh compound B. Pathologic tau accumulation was negative on 18F-THK5351 positron emission tomography imaging. Laboratory tests show no infections, no vitamin deficiencies, and no other diseases that may cause dementia. Clinical features, results of neurocognitive tests and neuroimaging studies showed no well-known neurodegenerative diseases. Collectively, he was diagnosed with language disorder based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria. Over a 2-year follow-up period, amnestic cognitive impairment in visual and language domains progressed in parallel with global cerebral hypoperfusion. Conclusion: This case suggests a possible link between language disorder as defined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria and progressive amnestic cognitive impairment in middle age, which may ultimately lead to dementia, derived from a neurodegenerative disease.

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APA

Takaya, M., Ishii, K., Kiguchi, K., Saigoh, K., & Shirakawa, O. (2020). Progressive amnestic cognitive impairment in a middle-aged patient with developmental language disorder: A case report. Journal of Medical Case Reports, 14(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13256-020-02483-w

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