Bacteriology of community acquired pneumonia in adult patients at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

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Abstract

Background: Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is reported as a common cause of lower respiratory tract infection worldwide. Bacterial pathogens and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) associated with this infection varied between geographical regions. Knowledge of the pathogens in a given area and their up-to-date AMR profile is essential for optimal management of patients. This study was aimed at assessing the type of bacterial isolates and their AMR among CAP adult patients at the Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital (FHRH), Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during 1 April to 30 July 2018. Demographic related data were collected from the study participants using a structured questionnaire. Sputum samples were collected and processed to identify pathogens using the conventional culture and biochemical tests as per the standard procedures. The Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method was implemented for the AMR testing. Descriptive and multivariable analysis was conducted using SPSS version 23. Results: Among 414 presumptively diagnosed study participants for CAP, bacterial pathogens were identified from 167 (40.3%) participants. Among these, multidrug resistance (MDR) accounted for 127(76%) of the isolates. The predominant isolates were Streptococcus pneumoniae at 60(35.9%) and Klebsella pneumoniae at 30(18%). Overcrowded living conditions [AOR 1.579 (95%CI: 1.015-2.456)] and alcohol use [AOR 4.043 (95% CI, 2.537-6.443)] were found statistically associated with culture positive sputum. Conclusions: The study showed high prevalence of mono-and multi-drug resistant isolates in the study area. Therefore, regular surveillance of the type of isolates and their AMR patterns should be considered. Interventions for reducing community acquired pneumonia should be integrated with lifestyle factors related to household and alcohol use.

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Temesgen, D., Bereded, F., Derbie, A., & Biadglegne, F. (2019). Bacteriology of community acquired pneumonia in adult patients at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13756-019-0560-0

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