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Background: The chromatin remodeler NAP1L1, which is upregulated in small intestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs), has been implicated in cell cycle progression. As p57Kip2 (CDKN1C), a negative regulator of proliferation and a tumor suppressor, is controlled by members of the NAP1 family, we tested the hypothesis that NAP1L1 may have a mechanistic role in regulating pancreatic NEN proliferation through regulation of p57 Kip2. Results: NAP1L1 silencing (siRNA and shRNA/lipofectamine approach) decreased proliferation through inhibition of mechanistic (mammalian) target of rapamycin pathway proteins and their phosphorylation (p < 0.05) in the pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm cell line BON in vitro (p < 0.0001) and resulted in significantly smaller (p < 0.05) and lighter (p < 0.05) tumors in the orthotopic pancreatic NEN mouse model. Methylation of the p57 Kip2 promoter was decreased by NAP1L1 silencing (p < 0.05), and expression of p57Kip2 (transcript and protein) was upregulated. For methylation of the p57 Kip2 promoter, NAP1L1 bound directly to the promoter (-164 to +21, chromatin immunoprecipitation). In 43 pancreatic NEN samples (38 primaries and 5 metastasis), NAP1L1 was over-expressed in metastasis (p < 0.001), expression which was inversely correlated with p57 Kip2 (p < 0.01) on mRNA and protein levels. Menin was not differentially expressed. Conclusion: NAP1L1 is over-expressed in pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm metastases and epigenetically promotes cell proliferation through regulation of p57 Kip2 promoter methylation. © 2014 Schimmack et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Schimmack, S., Taylor, A., Lawrence, B., Alaimo, D., Schmitz-Winnenthal, H., Büchler, M. W., … Kidd, M. (2014). A mechanistic role for the chromatin modulator, NAP1L1, in pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm proliferation and metastases. Epigenetics and Chromatin, 7(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-8935-7-15