We present an adaptive finite element method for time-resolved simulation of aerodynamics without any turbulence-model parameters, which is applied to a benchmark problem from the HiLiftPW-3workshop to compute the flowpast a JAXA Standard Model (JSM) aircraft model at realistic Reynolds numbers. The mesh is automatically constructed by the method as part of an adaptive algorithm based on a posteriori error estimation using adjoint techniques. No explicit turbulence model is used, and the effect of unresolved turbulent boundary layers is modeled by a simple parametrization of the wall shear stress in terms of a skin friction. In the case of very high Reynolds numbers, we approximate the small skin friction by zero skin friction, corresponding to a free-slip boundary condition, which results in a computational model without any model parameter to be tuned, and without the need for costly boundary-layer resolution. We introduce a numerical tripping-noise term to act as a seed for growth of perturbations; the results support that this triggers the correct physical separation at stall and has no significant pre-stall effect. We show that the methodology quantitavely and qualitatively captures the main features of the JSM experiment-aerodynamic forces and the stall mechanism-with a much coarser mesh resolution and lower computational cost than the state-of-the-art methods in the field, with convergence under mesh refinement by the adaptive method. Thus, the simulation methodology appears to be a possible answer to the challenge of reliably predicting turbulent-separated flows for a complete air vehicle.
Jansson, J., Krishnasamy, E., Leoni, M., Jansson, N., & Hoffman, J. (2018). Time-resolved adaptive direct fem simulation of high-lift aircraft configurations. In Numerical Simulation of the Aerodynamics of High-Lift Configurations (pp. 67–92). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62136-4_5