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Background: Although antibody-mediated immune responses are considered pathogenic and responsible for neural injury in anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 (anti-LGI1) encephalitis, previous studies have indicated that cytokines and chemokines might play roles in the pathogenic process by serving as B cell enhancers. In this study, we detected the profiles of cytokines and chemokines in the cerebral fluid (CSF) and serum of patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis to identify potential biomarkers. Methods: Sixteen patients diagnosed with anti-LGI1 encephalitis and nine patients diagnosed with noninflammatory neurologic disorders were included in the study. Cytokines and chemokines including IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, CXCL12, CXCL13, BAFF and HMGB1 in serum and CSF were measured. Results: The serum and CSF levels of CXCL13 were significantly higher in patients with anti- LGI1 encephalitis (36.32±34.71 pg/mL and 2.23±2.41 pg/mL, respectively) than in controls (10.84 ±5.02 pg/mL and 0.34±0.21 pg/mL, respectively). There was no significant difference in serum or CSF levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, CXCL12, BAFF and HMGB1 between the two groups. Conclusion: CXCL13 is a potential biomarker of active inflammation in anti-LGI1 encephalitis. The distinctive response of cytokines and chemokines might be closely linked to the mechanisms underlying this condition.
Lin, Y. T., Yang, X., Lv, J. W., Liu, X. W., & Wang, S. J. (2019). CXCL13 Is A Biomarker Of Anti-Leucine-Rich Glioma-Inactivated Protein 1 Encephalitis Patients. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 15, 2909–2915. https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S222258