Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) constitutes a growing health care problem worldwide. Integrated disease management (IDM) of mild to moderate COPD patients has been demonstrated to improve exercise capacity and health status after one year, but long-term results are currently lacking in primary care. Methods: Long-term data from the Bocholtz study, a controlled clinical trial comparing the effects of IDM versus usual care on health status in 106 primary care COPD patients during 24 months of follow-up, were analyzed using the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ). In addition, the Kroonluchter IDM implementation program has treated 216 primary care patients with mild to moderate COPD since 2006. Longitudinal six-minute walking distance (6MWD) results for patients reaching 24 months of follow-up were analyzed using paired-sample t-tests. In prespecified subgroup analyses, the differential effects of baseline CCQ score, Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea score, and 6MWD were investigated. Results: In the Bocholtz study, subjects were of mean age 64 years, with an average postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1) of 63% predicted and an FEV 1 /forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio of 0.56. No significant differences existed between groups at baseline. CCQ improved significantly and in a clinically relevant manner by 0.4 points over 24 months; effect sizes were doubled in patients with CCQ . 1 at baseline and tripled in patients with MRC dyspnea score .2. In the Kroonluchter cohort, 56 subjects completed follow-up, were of mean age 69 years, with an FEV 1 /FVC ratio of 0.59, while their postbronchodilator FEV 1 of 65% predicted was somewhat lower than in the total group. 6MWD improved significantly and in a clinically relevant manner up to 93 m at 12 months and was sustained at 83 m over 24 months; this effect occurred faster in patients with MRC dyspnea score .2. In patients with baseline 6MWD , 400 m the improvement remained .100 m at 24 months. Conclusion: In this study, IDM improved and sustained health status and exercise capacity in primary care COPD patients during two years of follow-up. Improvements in health status are consistently higher in patients with CCQ . 1 at baseline, being strongest in patients with base-line MRC dyspnea score .2. Improvements in exercise capacity remain highest in patients with 6MWD , 400 m at baseline and seem to occur earlier in patients with MRC dyspnea score .2.
Chavannes, N. H., Kruis, van Adrichem, Erkelens, Scheepers, in ’t Veen, & Muris, J. W. (2010). Sustained effects of integrated COPD management on health status and exercise capacity in primary care patients. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, 407. https://doi.org/10.2147/copd.s9654