Proteomic analysis of human frontal and temporal cortex using iTRAQ-based 2D LC-MS/MS

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Abstract

Background: The human brain is the most complex organ in the body, and it is important to have a better understanding of how the protein composition in the brain regions contributes to the pathogenesis of associated neurological disorders. Methods: In this study, a comparative analysis of the frontal and temporal cortex proteomes was conducted by isobaric tags of relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling and two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2D LC-MS/MS). Brain protein was taken from relatively normal tissue that could not be avoided of damage during emergent surgery of the TBI (traumatic brain injury) patients admitted in Beijing Tiantan Hospital from 2014 to 2017. Eight cases were included. Four frontal lobes and 4 temporal lobes proteome were analyzed and the proteins were quantitated. Gene Ontology (GO), Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were used to analyze the biological function of identified proteins, unchanged proteins, and differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). Results: A total number of 2127 protein groups were identified in the frontal and temporal lobe proteomes. A total of 1709 proteins could be quantitated in both the frontal and temporal cortex. Among 90 DEPs, 14 proteins were screened highly expressed in the temporal cortex, including MAPT, SNCG, ATP5IF1, GAP43, HSPE1, STMN1, NDUFS6, LDHB, SNCB, NDUFA7, MRPS36, EPDR1, CISD1, and RALA. In addition, compared to proteins expressed in the frontal cortex, 14 proteins including EDC4, NIT2, VWF, ASTN1, TGM2, SSB, CLU, HBA1, STOM, CRP, LRG1, SAA2, S100A4, and VTN were a low expression in the temporal cortex. The biological process enrichment showed that unchanged proteins between the frontal and temporal cortex mainly take part in regulated exocytosis, axon guidance, and vesicle-mediated transport. The KEGG pathway analysis showed that unchanged proteins between the frontal and temporal cortex mainly take part in oxidative phosphorylation, carbon metabolism, Huntington’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. Conclusions: The majority of proteins are unchanged between the frontal and temporal cortex, and unchanged proteins are closely related to its function. Among DEPs, MATP (tau) is upregulated in the temporal cortex, closely related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and is one of the targets for the treatment of AD. CLU is downregulated in the temporal cortex which functions as an extracellular chaperone that prevents aggregation of non-native proteins. It was suggested that the temporal lobe may not be the “functional dumb area” of the traditional view, but could be involved in important neural metabolic circuits.

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Xu, L., Sun, H., Zhang, Y., Guo, Z., Xiao, X., Zhou, X., … Liu, W. (2021). Proteomic analysis of human frontal and temporal cortex using iTRAQ-based 2D LC-MS/MS. Chinese Neurosurgical Journal, 7(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41016-021-00241-5

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