Spread of resistant gram negatives in a Sri Lankan intensive care unit

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Background: Infections with multi drug resistant (MDR) organisms are a major problem in intensive care units (ICUs). Proper infection control procedures are mandatory to combat the spread of resistant organisms within ICUs. Well stablished surveillance programmes will enhance the adherence of the staff to infection control protocols. The study was conducted to assess the feasibility of using basic molecular typing methods and routine hospital data for laboratory surveillance of resistance organisms in resource limited settings. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using consecutive Gram negative isolates obtained from an ICU over a six month period. Antibiotic sensitivity patterns and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) based typing was performed on the given isolates. Results: Of the seventy isolates included in the study, seven were E.coli. All E.coli were MDRs and Extended Spectrum β lactamse (ESBL) producers carrying bla CTX-M. Fourteen isolates were K.pneumoniae, and all were MDRs and ESBL producers. All K.pneumoniae harboured bla SHV while 13 harboured bla CTX-M. The MDR rate among P.aeruginosa was 13% (n=15) while all acinetobacters (n=30) were MDRs. Predominant clusters were identified within all four types of Gram negatives using RAPD and the ICU stay of patients overlapped temporally. Conclusion: We propose that simple surveillance methods like RAPD based typing and basic hospital data can be used to convince hospital staff to adhere to infection control protocols more effectively, in low and middle income countries.

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Tissera, K., Liyanapathirana, V., Dissanayake, N., Pinto, V., Ekanayake, A., Tennakoon, M., … Nanayakkara, D. (2017). Spread of resistant gram negatives in a Sri Lankan intensive care unit. BMC Infectious Diseases, 17(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-017-2590-7

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