Cot-nursing versus incubator care for preterm infants

  • Gray P
  • Flenady V
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Abstract

BACKGROUND Preterm infants are usually nursed in incubators, but cot-nursing may provide an alternative. While there may be benefits of nursing preterm infants in open cots, there may be potential risks such as nosocomial infection caused by more handling due to easier access. OBJECTIVES To assess effects of cot-nursing versus incubator care on temperature control and weight gain in preterm infants. SEARCH STRATEGY The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. This included searches of electronic databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library), Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE, as well as previous reviews including cross references through November 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA All trials using random or quasi-random patient allocation in which infants receiving care in standard newborn cots were compared to infants managed in a conventional air heated incubator. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS The authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data for the primary outcomes of temperature control and weight gain. Meta-analysis was conducted using a fixed-effect model. MAIN RESULTS Eleven potential studies were identified of which five, involving 247 infants, were included in this review. When compared to incubator care, cot-nursing resulted in no significant difference in mean body temperature (MD 0.02 degrees C; 95% CI -0.02 to 0.07, four trials), though the one trial that reported on episodes of hyperthermia found this to be statistically more common in the cot-nursing group (RR 1.48; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09). There were no statistically significant differences in weight gain. In the cot-nursing group, fewer infants were breast fed on discharge (typical RR 0.74; 95% CI 0.48 to 1.14, three trials, 150 infants) and fewer infants died prior to hospital discharge (typical RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.25, four trials, 235 infants) but these results failed to reach statistical significance. The comparison of cot-nursing using a heated water-filled mattress versus incubator care, which included five trials and a total of 231 infants, produced similar results. Cot-nursing with warming of the nursery resulted in statistically significantly smaller weight gain during week one compared to the incubator group in one trial that involved 38 infants (MD -5.90 g/kg/day; 95% CI -11.13 to -0.67) but no significant difference was found for weeks two and three. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Cot-nursing using a heated water-filled mattress has similar effects to incubator care with regard to temperature control and weight gain. Important clinical outcomes need to be investigated further using randomised controlled trials. This is especially the case in the situation of developing countries, where differences in these outcomes are likely to be encountered. As limited data is available on cot-nursing using a space-heated room, this method is not recommended as practice.

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Gray, P. H., & Flenady, V. (2011). Cot-nursing versus incubator care for preterm infants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd003062.pub2

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