The geography of wine production worldwide results largely from the dependence on climates that provide the conditions needed to produce a quality product. Overall, the climate structure in a given wine-producing region largely determines the suitability of the region to different winegrape cultivars, the overall wine style produced there, and the economic viability of the industry. While the baseline climate determines the suitability, climate variability has a dominant effect on vintage-to-vintage variations in both wine quality and production. Additional challenges come from changes in climate that have altered the suitability of some regions for the better and challenged others.
Jones, G. V., Reid, R., & Vilks, A. (2012). Climate, grapes, and wine: Structure and suitability in a variable and changing climate. In The Geography of Wine: Regions, Terroir and Techniques (Vol. 9789400704640, pp. 109–133). Springer Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0464-0_7