The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of different exercise programs on the psychological and cognitive functions in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Forty-five patients with PD participated in the study. The participants were randomized in three intervention programs: Group-1 (n=15, cognitive-activities), Group-2 (n=15, multimodal exercise) and Group-3 (n=15, exercises for posture and gait). The clinical, psychological and cognitive functions were assessed before and after 4 months of intervention. Univariate analysis did not reveal significant interactions between groups and time (p>0.05). However, univariate analysis for time revealed differences in stress level and memory. Participants showed less physical stress (p<0.01) and overall stress (p < 0.04) and higher performance in episodic declarative memory (p < 0.001) after exercise. These findings suggest that group work with motor or non-motor activities can improve cognitive and psychological functions of patients with PD.
Gobbi, L. T. B., Teixeira-Arroyo, C., Lirani-Silva, E., Vitório, R., Barbieri, F. A., & Pereira, M. P. (2013). Effect of different exercise programs on the psychological and cognitive functions of people with Parkinson’s disease. Motriz. Revista de Educacao Fisica, 19(3), 597–604. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1980-65742013000300010