Evaluation of a paper-based visual acuity questionnaire

Citations of this article
Mendeley users who have this article in their library.


Purpose: To validate a paper-based visual acuity (PBVA) questionnaire. Methods: In 2015, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 301 young and middle-aged, mostly male, Japanese subjects. The participants were asked to self-rate their visual acuity (VA) on a scale from 1 to 5. Self-ratings of VA were categorized into three groups: good (1 and 2), normal (3), and poor (4 and 5). For objective validation, we performed a functional VA (FVA) assessment in the same subjects. Results: A total of 301 subjects answered the PBVA and completed the FVA test including initial VA. We found out that the result of PBVA was significantly correlated with FVA test and initial VA (r=0.33, P<0.0001, r=0.273, P<0.0001). The trend test analysis between PBVA and FVA also showed statistically significant (P<0.0001). Conclusion: There was a significant statistical correlation between the PBVA and the FVA, as well as the initial VA. This short questionnaire on VA might be a sensitive tool that is easy to implement and utilized in large epidemiological and clinical researches.




Uchino, M., Kawashima, M., Kaido, M., Suwaki, K., Uchino, Y., Kawachi, I., … Tsubota, K. (2017). Evaluation of a paper-based visual acuity questionnaire. Clinical Ophthalmology, 11, 1213–1217. https://doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S138399

Register to see more suggestions

Mendeley helps you to discover research relevant for your work.

Already have an account?

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free