Malignant tumors of the penis, scrotum, and testes are rare, accounting for roughly 0.5 % of all male tumors. Presently the diagnosis of these tumors depends mainly on histologic examination, supplemented with immunohistochemistry. Over the past 20 years, however, many genetic changes have been identified that are largely specific to different tumors and tumor classes, such as 12p gains in testicular germ cell tumors. Although not commonly employed in the analysis of these tumors, molecular genetic testing is now available for many of these tumors and is becoming an increasingly important adjunct in their diagnosis and treatment. Here, we summarize what is known about the molecular pathology of these tumors and some of the molecular testing modalities currently available. We also briefly discuss the possible future molecular diagnostics of these tumors.
Whitling, N. A., Hirsh, S. M., & Shackelford, R. E. (2014). Molecular-genetic testing in penile, scrotal, and testicular cancer. In Molecular Pathology and Diagnostics of Cancer (pp. 341–364). Springer Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7192-5_11