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Background: Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) is an important clinical occurrence seen in common diseases, such as gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs or colic in horses. Limited data is available on the use of methylene blue in veterinary medicine for intestinal ischemia-reperfusion. The present study aimed to compare the hemodynamic, histopathological, and immunohistochemical effects of two doses of methylene blue in two rabbit model groups In one group, 5 mg/kg IV was administered, and in another, 20 mg/kg IV was administered following a constant rate infusion (CRI) of 2 mg/kg/h that lasted 6 h. All the groups, including a control group had intestinal ischemia-reperfusion. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using caspase-3. Results: During ischemia, hemodynamic depression with reduced perfusion and elevated lactate were observed. During reperfusion, methylene blue (MB) infusion generated an increase in cardiac output due to a positive chronotropic effect, an elevation of preload, and an intense positive inotropic effect. The changes in heart rate and blood pressure were significantly greater in the group in which methylene blue 5 mg/kg IV was administered (MB5) than in the group in which methylene blue 20 mg/kg IV dose was administered (MB20). In addition, lactate and stroke volume variations were significantly reduced, and vascular resistance was significantly elevated in the MB5 group compared with the control group and MB20 group. The MB5 group showed a significant decrease in the intensity of histopathological lesion scores in the intestines and a decrease in caspase-3 areas, in comparison with other groups. Conclusions: MB infusion produced improvements in hemodynamic parameters in rabbits subjected to intestinal IR, with increased cardiac output and blood pressure. An MB dosage of 5 mg/kg IV administered at a CRI of 2 mg/kg/h exhibited the most protective effect against histopathological damage caused by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion. Further studies with MB in clinical veterinary pathologies are recommended to fully evaluate these findings.
Morgaz, J., Ventura, S., Muñoz-Rascón, P., Navarrete, R., Pérez, J., Granados, M. D. M., … Zafra, R. (2020). Assessment of effects of methylene blue on intestinal ischemia and reperfusion in a rabbit model: Hemodynamic, histological and immunohistochemical study. BMC Veterinary Research, 16(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-020-02279-6