Water for preventing urinary stones

5Citations
Citations of this article
75Readers
Mendeley users who have this article in their library.

This article is free to access.

Abstract

Background: Urinary stone disease is a common condition characterised by increasing prevalence and high rates of recurrence. Observational studies have reported that increased water intake played a role in the prevention of urinary stone formation but with limited strength of evidence. Objectives: To compare the effects of increased water intake with standard water intake for the prevention of urinary stone formation in participants with or without a history of urinary stones. Search methods: We performed a systematic search of PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE (Ovid) and the Cochrane Library to 15 October 2019. We handsearched review articles, clinical trial registries, and reference lists of retrieved articles. We did not apply any restrictions to publication language or publication status. Selection criteria: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs looking at the benefits and harms of increased water intake versus standard water intake for the prevention of urinary stone formation in participants with or without a history of urinary stones. Data collection and analysis: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. We pooled dichotomous outcomes (e.g. incidence/recurrence rate of urinary stones; adverse events) using risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We calculated hazard ratio (HRs) and corresponding 95% CIs to assess the intervention effect for time-to-event outcomes. We assessed the certainty of the evidence by using the GRADE criteria. Main results: Our search identified no RCTs investigating the role of increased water intake for the prevention of urinary stone formation in participants with no history of urinary stones (primary prevention). We found one RCT assessing the effects of increased water intake versus standard water intake for the prevention of urinary stone formation in people with a history of urinary stones (secondary prevention). This trial randomised 220 participants (110 participants in the intervention group with increased water intake and 110 in the control group with standard water intake). Increased water intake was defined as achieving a urine volume of at least 2.0 L per day by drinking water. Based on this study, increased water intake may decrease stone recurrences (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.84; 199 participants; low-certainty evidence); this corresponds to 149 fewer (43 fewer to 205 fewer) stone recurrences per 1000 participants with 270 stone recurrence per 1000 participants over five years in the control group. Increased water intake may also prolong the time to urinary stone recurrence compared to standard water intake (HR 0.40, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.79; 199 participants; low-certainty evidence); based on a stone recurrence rate of 270 per 1000 participants over five years, this corresponds to 152 fewer (209 fewer to 50 fewer) recurrences per 1000 participants. For both outcomes we downgraded the certainty of evidence for study limitations and imprecision. We found no evidence for the outcome of adverse events. Authors' conclusions: We found no RCT evidence on the role of increased water intake for primary prevention of urinary stones. For secondary prevention, increased water intake achieving a urine volume of at least 2.0 L/day may reduce urinary stone recurrence and prolong time to recurrence for people with a history of urinary stone disease. However, our confidence in these findings is limited. We did not find evidence for adverse events.

Cite

CITATION STYLE

APA

Bao, Y., Tu, X., & Wei, Q. (2020, February 11). Water for preventing urinary stones. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004292.pub4

Register to see more suggestions

Mendeley helps you to discover research relevant for your work.

Already have an account?

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free