Dietary diversity and food security status among heart failure patients in the north of Iran

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Background: Dietary diversity score (DDS) is an indicator for assessing nutritional adequacy. Food security is another important measure in nutrition field which can be associated with several cardiovascular risk factors. Considering the importance of nutrition in heart failure (HF) patients, this study was designed to evaluate the DDS and food security of patients with HF. Methods: A total of 200 HF patients were enrolled. DDS was evaluated using valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire and was calculated by scoring food intakes as 5 main groups. Household food insecurity access scale was applied to assess food security status. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests and multiple logistic regression models. Results: The mean age of patients was 65 (standard deviation: 12) years and 59% of patients were male. Median of DDS was 1.96 (range: 0.29 to 6.12). Adjusted odds of greater DDS (> = median of 2) was 2.58 times higher for patients without hypertension than for patients with hypertension (95%CI: 1.31–5.08, P = 0.006). Also, odds of greater DDS were more in ex-smokers’ patients when compared to non-smokers (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.70, 95%CI: 1.27–5.75, P = 0.010), patients with supplement use (AOR: 2.42, 95%CI: 1.16–5.05, P = 0.019), patients with lower total cholesterol level (AOR: 1.01, 95%CI: 1.00–1.02, P = 0.051), and patients with higher ejection fraction (AOR: 1.03, 95%CI: 1.00–1.05, with borderline. P = 0.073). About 57% of patients had experienced degrees of food insecurity as mild (26%), moderate (16%) and severe (15%). On the other hand, women (AOR: 1.90, 95%CI: 0.90–3.71, with borderline P = 0.061) and patients with middle (AOR: 3.48, 95%CI: 1.79–6.76, P < 0.001) or high (AOR: 20.32, 95%CI: 2.56–161.19, P = 0.004) socio-economic status were more likely to be food secure or mild insecure. Also, no relation between DDS and food security was found (r = − 0.08, P = 0.262). Conclusion: This study found that HF patients had a low DDS and more than half of the patients were food insecure to some extents.




Mahdavi-Roshan, M., Vakilpour, A., Mousavi, S. M., & Ashouri, A. (2021). Dietary diversity and food security status among heart failure patients in the north of Iran. BMC Nutrition, 7(1).

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