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Background: Insulin resistance and hormonal imbalances are key features in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). We have previously shown that Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea Jack (Moraceae) can improve insulin sensitivity and hormonal profile in PCOS female rats. However, biological characteristics underpinning the therapeutic effects of F. deltoidea for treating PCOS remain to be clarified. This study aims to investigate the biochemical, hormonal, and histomorphometric changes in letrozole (LTZ)-induced PCOS female rats following treatment with F. deltoidea. Methods: PCOS was induced in rats except for normal control by administering LTZ at 1 mg/kg/day for 21 days. Methanolic extract of F. deltoidea leaf was then orally administered to the PCOS rats at the dose of 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day, respectively for 15 consecutive days. Lipid profile was measured enzymatically in serum. The circulating concentrations of reproductive hormone and antioxidant enzymes were determined by ELISA assays. Ovarian and uterus histomorphometric changes were further observed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Results: The results showed that treatment with F. deltoidea at the dose of 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day reduced insulin resistance, obesity indices, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), malondialdehyde (MDA), testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) to near-normal levels in PCOS rats. The levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), estrogen, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) are also similar to those observed in normal control rats. Histomorphometric measurements confirmed that F. deltoidea increased the corpus luteum number and the endometrial thickness. Conclusions: F. deltoidea can reverse PCOS symptoms in female rats by improving insulin sensitivity, antioxidant activities, hormonal imbalance, and histological changes. These findings suggest the potential use of F. deltoidea as an adjuvant agent in the treatment program of PCOS.
Haslan, M. A., Samsulrizal, N., Hashim, N., Zin, N. S. N. M., Shirazi, F. H., & Goh, Y. M. (2021). Ficus deltoidea ameliorates biochemical, hormonal, and histomorphometric changes in letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome rats. BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies, 21(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-021-03452-6