Prenatal occupational disinfectant exposure and childhood allergies: The Japan Environment and Children's study

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Abstract

Background Disinfectants are widely used in the medical field, particularly recently because of the coronavirus pandemic, which has led to an increase in their use by both medical professionals and the general population. The objective of this study was to examine whether occupational disinfectant use during pregnancy was associated with the development of allergic disease in offspring at 3 years. Methods We used data from 78 915 mother/child pairs who participated in the Japan Environment and Children's Study, which is a prospective birth cohort recruited between January 2011 and March 2014. We examined the associations between maternal disinfectant use during pregnancy and allergic diseases (asthma, eczema and food allergies) in children after adjustment for covariates including maternal postnatal return to work when the child was 1 year old by multivariate logistic regression. Results Compared with those who never used disinfectants, participants who used disinfectant every day had a significantly higher risk of asthma in their offspring (adjusted OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.33 for 1-6 times a week; adjusted OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.52 for every day). The associations between disinfectant exposure and eczema were similar to those of asthma (adjusted OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.31 for 1-6 times a week; adjusted OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.57 for every day). We found a significant exposure-dependent relationship (p for trend <0.01). There were no significant associations between disinfectant use and food allergies. Conclusion Disinfectant use by pregnant women may be a risk factor for asthma and eczema in offspring. As disinfectants are an effective tool in the prevention of infectious diseases, replication of this study and further research into the mechanisms are warranted.

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Kojima, R., Shinohara, R., Kushima, M., Horiuchi, S., Otawa, S., Yokomichi, H., … Yamagata, Z. (2022). Prenatal occupational disinfectant exposure and childhood allergies: The Japan Environment and Children’s study. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 79(8), 521–526. https://doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2021-108034

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