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Introduction: Aspergillus, a nosocomial agent, is the most common fungal cause of suppurative thyroiditis. Most patients with Aspergillus thyroiditis have disseminated infection, primarily with lung compromise. Late diagnosis and treatment, severity of immunosuppressive state and thyroid hormone overload contribute to extremely high mortality rates. Case presentation: We describe a 20-year-old Caucasian man receiving corticosteroid suppression therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus. He presented persistent fever with neck pain and pulmonary infection. Piperacillin/tazobactam was initiated but after 2 days he developed hypoxemia, vascular shock, severe anemia, lymphopenia, and high C-reactive protein. Thyroid ultrasound revealed well-defined hypoechogenic clusters in both lobes and laboratorial thyrotoxicosis but low triiodothyronine concentration. A purulent substance was obtained on fine needle aspiration and drained. Amphotericin B and fluconazole were added but he had unfavorable evolution and died. Aspergillus fumigatus was defined only 2 days after his death. Conclusions: This case serves to alert clinicians to the possibility of infectious thyroiditis and reinforces the high risk of aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Therefore, management including voriconazole as first-line treatment or amphotericin B, in association with broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, should be adopted to improve treatment outcome.
Marui, S., De Lima Pereira, A. C., De Araújo Maia, R. M., & Borba, E. F. (2014). Suppurative thyroiditis due to aspergillosis: A case report. Journal of Medical Case Reports, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-1947-8-379