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Background: We recently reported that blueberry juice fermented (FJ) with Serratia vaccinii bacterium has antidiabetic activities both in vivo and in vitro. The purpose of this project was to elucidate the effect of FJ on glucose homeostasis in liver and skeletal muscle cells and to identify active fractions/compounds responsible for this effect. Methods: FJ was fractionated using standard chromatography procedures. Hepatic (H4IIE, HepG2) and skeletal muscle cells (C2C12) were treated with maximum non-toxic concentrations of FJ, fractions and isolated compounds thereof. Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) activity was measured using glucose oxidase method. To measure glucose uptake and glycogen synthase (GS) activity, radioactive assays were used. Results: Fractionation of FJ yielded seven fractions. FJ and its phenolic fractions F2, F3-1 and F3-2 respectively inhibited G-6Pase by 31, 45, 51 and 26%; activated GS by 2.3-, 2.3-, 2.2- and 2-fold; and stimulated glucose uptake by 19, 25, 18 and 15%, as compared to DMSO vehicle control. Subfractionation of the active fractions yielded 4 compounds (catechol, chlorogenic, gallic and protocatechuic acid). Catechol, yielding the greatest bioactivity in G6Pase and glucose uptake assays, decreased G6Pase activity by 54%, increased GS by 2-fold and stimulated glucose uptake by 44% at 45.5 μM. Conclusions: This study identifies novel potential antidiabetic compounds that can help standardize FJ.
Nachar, A., Eid, H. M., Vinqvist-Tymchuk, M., Vuong, T., Kalt, W., Matar, C., & Haddad, P. S. (2017). Phenolic compounds isolated from fermented blueberry juice decrease hepatocellular glucose output and enhance muscle glucose uptake in cultured murine and human cells. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 17(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1650-2