Injuries caused by venomous and poisonous aquatic animals may provoke important morbidity in humans. The phylum Echinoderma include more than 6000 species of starfish, sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea cucumbers some of which have been found responsible for injuries to humans. Initial injuries by sea urchins are associated with trauma and envenomation, but later effects can be observed. Sea urchin granuloma is a chronic granulomatous skin disease caused by frequent and successive penetration of sea urchin spines which have not been removed from wounds. The authors report a typical case of sea urchin granuloma in a fisherman and its therapeutic implications.
Rossetto, A. L., Mora, J. D. M., & Haddad, V. (2006). Sea urchin granuloma. Revista Do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, 48(5), 303–306. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0036-46652006000500013