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This article reviews the longstanding debate in the literature on electoral systems regarding the relative merits of open and closed lists for the election of women, describes the very different systems used in congressional and municipal elections in Peru, and examines gendered disparities between Lima and the provinces. A series of empirical comparisons demonstrates that the type of list is not of great importance in the capital, but that female candidates fare better under closed lists in the provinces, where the socioeconomic context and political culture are less supportive of women.
Schmidt, G. D. (2020). Are open or closed lists better for women? Comparing lima and the Provinces in Peru. Apuntes, 47(86), 147–169. https://doi.org/10.21678/apuntes.86.930