Background: Tranexamic acid (TXA) is widely used in orthopedic surgery to reduce perioperative bleeding. Since TXA inhibits fibrinolysis, there is concern that it may increase the risk of thromboembolic events. Objectives: To verify the prevalence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients receiving TXA during total knee arthroplasty and to compare topical with intravenous administration of the drug. Methods: All patients admitted for total knee arthroplasty due to primary arthrosis between June and November of 2014 were recruited consecutively. Thirty patients were randomized to a “topical group” (1.5 g TXA diluted in 50ml saline sprayed over the area operated, before tourniquet release), 30 to an “intravenous group” (20mg/kg TXA in 100 ml of saline, given at the same time as anesthesia), and 30 to a control group (100 ml of saline, given at the same time as anesthesia). All patients had duplex ultrasound scans of the legs on the 15th postoperative day. Results: Deep venous thrombosis events occurred in five of the 90 patients operated (one out of 30 in the topical group [3.3%], four out of 30 in the control group [13.3%], and zero in the intravenous group). All were confirmed by duplex ultrasound scans and all were asymptomatic. Prevalence rates of DVT were similar between groups (p = 0.112 for control vs. intravenous; p = 0.353 for control vs. topical; and p =1.000 for intravenous vs. topical, according to two-sided exact tests). Conclusions: Both topical and intravenous administration of TXA are safe with regard to occurrence of DVT, since the number of DVT cases in patients given TXA was not different to the number in those given placebo.
Zekcer, A., del Priori, R., Tieppo, C., da Silva, R. S., & Severino, N. R. (2016). Uso tópico versus intravenoso de ácido tranexâmico na artroplastia de joelho e prevalência de trombose venosa profunda: Estudo clínico randomizado. Jornal Vascular Brasileiro, 15(2), 120–125. https://doi.org/10.1590/1677-5449.007515