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Background: Chronic inflammation has been implicated in sarcomagenesis. Among various factors, activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway has been documented being able to target genes associated with tumor progression and up-regulate the expression of tumor-promoting cytokines and survival genes in several human solid tumors. Feline injection sites sarcomas (FISS) are malignant entities derived from the mesenchymal origin. The disease has been considered to be associated with vaccine adjuvant, aluminum, which serves as a stimulus continuously inducing overzealous inflammatory and immunologic reactions. To understand the contribution of NF-κB in FISS, detection of activated NF-κB in paraffin-embedded specimens, in vitro establishment of primary cells derived from FISS, and evaluation of the effects of the NF-κB inhibitor, dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), on primary tumor cells were conducted. Results: In this study, nuclear expression of NF-κB p65 was detected in 83.3% of FISS cases and not correlated with tumor grading, sex, and age. Primary cells derived from FISS in three cats exhibiting same immunohistochemical characteristics as their original tumor were successfully established. The NF-κB inhibitor, DHMEQ, was able to prevent nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65, inhibit cell proliferation, migration, and colonization in dosage-dependent manners, and induce cell apoptosis in these primary FISS cells. Conclusions: High expression rate of nuclear NF-κB p65 in FISS cases and dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the growth of FISS primary cells treated with NF-κB inhibitor suggested that NF-κB might be a potential molecular therapeutic target for FISS.
Hsueh, C. S., Wu, C. H., Shih, C. H., Yeh, J. L. S., Jeng, C. R., Pang, V. F., … Chang, H. W. (2019). Role of nuclear factor-kappa B in feline injection site sarcoma. BMC Veterinary Research, 15(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-2100-9