3D printing has made its remarkable place in the field of additive manufacturing and keeps growing since its inception (1980). The product developed through 3D printing are generally of static configuration in nature and doesn’t show any change in behavior. In 2013, this provided a lead to researchers at MIT to add another dimension of time in products made through 3D printing techniques where product shows change in its basic configuration to get a predicted shape/ function with respect to time when any stimulus (heat, liquid, pressure, light etc.) is involved. This was named as 4D printing and this is in developing stage. This can be achieved by various methods using materials exhibiting smart behavior, self-assembly, self-repair, multi material combination and other new 3D printing techniques. Smart materials with 3D printing are finding its scope in various sectors to provide the suitable substitute to the conventional one. The aim of the this paper is to compare 3D and 4D printing process, summarize basics of 4D printing processes including materials that leads to 4D printing and find its application strength in different fields, so finally able to explore the capabilities of 4D printing processes.
Singholi, A. K. S., & Sharma, A. (2019). Finding capabilities of 4D printing. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, 8(5), 1095–1110.